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World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July to 11 November Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in 28 July – 11 November , (4 years, . Aug 29,  · Queen Elizabeth II Delegates Wreath Ceremony to Prince Charles. One of the most perilous and least known battlefields of the war was in the Dolomites. Corpses are still emerging. Against a wide field of horror, there were small kindnesses to be found, as The New York Times Mid-Week Pictorial noted years ago. Oct 29,  · World War I History. World War I began in , after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and lasted until During the conflict, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (the Central Powers) fought against Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Romania, Japan and the United States (the Allied Powers).

First World - Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One

Military deaths by country [5] [6]. Military deaths by country [5]. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, and the two moved to a war footing.

A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe. By Julythe great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente —consisting of FranceRussiaand Britain —and the Triple Alliance of GermanyAustria-Hungaryworld war 1 article, and Italy the Triple Alliance was only defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war until Aprilwhen it joined the Allied Powers after its relations with Austria-Hungary deteriorated.

German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to rapidly concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within six weeks, then shift forces to the East before Russia could fully mobilise; this was later known as the Schlieffen Plan.

In Novemberthe Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the CaucasusMesopotamiaworld war 1 article, and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon world war 1 article power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe.

The Entente and its allies would eventually become known as the Allied Powerswhile the grouping of Austria-Hungary, Germany and their allies would become known as the Central Powers, world war 1 article. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end ofthe Western Front settled into a battle of attritionmarked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until the Eastern Frontby contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory.

InItaly joined the Allied Powers and opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in and Greece joined the Allies inexpanding the war in the Balkans.

The United States initially remained neutral, though even while neutral it became an important supplier of war materiel world war 1 article the Allies. Eventually, after the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the declaration by Germany that its navy would resume unrestricted attacks on neutral shipping, and the revelation that Germany was trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U.

Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid, but ultimately the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated inand Romania joined the Allied Powers in only to be defeated innone of the great powers were knocked out of the war until The February Revolution in Russia replaced the World war 1 article autocracy with the Provisional Governmentbut continuing discontent with the cost of the war led to the October Revolutionthe creation of the Soviet Socialist Republicand the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in Marchending Russia's involvement in the war.

This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March Offensive. This offensive was initially successful, but failed to score a decisive victory and exhausted the last of the German reserves. The Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensivea continual series of attacks to which the Germans had no reply. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, and the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 Novembereffectively ending the war.

World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural, economic, and social climate of the world. The war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous revolutions and uprisings. The Big Four Britain, France, the United States, and Italy imposed their terms on the defeated powers in a series of treaties agreed at the Paris Peace Conferencethe most well known being the German peace treaty—the Treaty of Versailles.

However, despite the conclusive Allied victory and the creation of the League of Nations during the Peace Conference, intended to prevent future warsa second world war would follow just over twenty years later.

The term "First World War" was first used in September by German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckelwho claimed that "there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared 'European War' This is the Great War. For much of the 19th century, the major European powers had tried to maintain world war 1 article tenuous balance of power among themselves, resulting in a complex network of political and military alliances. Concerned by Russia's victory in the — Russo-Turkish War and their influence in the Balkansthe League was dissolved inwith Germany and Austria-Hungary subsequently forming the Dual Alliance ; this became the Triple Alliance when Italy joined in The practical details of these alliances were limited, since their primary purpose was to ensure cooperation between the three Imperial Powers and isolate France.

World war 1 article by Britain in to resolve colonial tensions with Russia and diplomatic moves by France led to Bismarck reforming the League in The agreements did not constitute formal alliances, but by settling long-standing colonial disputes, they made British entry into any future conflict involving France or Russia a possibility; these interlocking bilateral agreements became known as the Triple Entente.

Victory in the Franco-Prussian War and the creation of the German Reich led to a massive increase in Germany's economic and industrial strength. The result was the Anglo-German naval arms race. In many ways, it was a strategic disaster for Germany, diverting huge resources to create a navy large enough to antagonise Britain but not defeat it. Ending the naval arms race reduced tensions between Britain and Germany but did not lead to reductions elsewhere; inGermany approved an increase in its standing army bymen, world war 1 article, Russia committed to anothermen over the next three years, while France extended compulsory military service from two to three years.

In OctoberAustria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of — by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovinawhich it had occupied since Russian political manoeuvring in the world war 1 article destabilised peace accords that were already fracturing in the Balkans, which came to be known as the " powder keg of Europe ", world war 1 article.

The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian state while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, world war 1 article, Montenegro world war 1 article, and Greece.

The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces, which Austria-Hungary had annexed from the Ottoman Empire, so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia. Some nearby were injured by the blast, world war 1 article, but Ferdinand's convoy carried on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them.

About an hour later, when Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo World war 1 article with those wounded in the assassination attempt, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where, by coincidence, Princip stood. With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, world war 1 article.

Although they were reportedly not personally close, world war 1 article, the Emperor Franz Joseph was profoundly shocked and upset. The reaction among the people in Austria, however, was mild, almost indifferent. On Sunday and Monday 28 and 29 Junethe crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened. The Austro-Hungarian authorities encouraged the subsequent anti-Serb riots in Sarajevoin which Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks killed two Bosnian Serbs and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings, world war 1 article.

Austro-Hungarian authorities in Bosnia world war 1 article Herzegovina imprisoned and extradited approximately 5, prominent Serbs, to 2, of whom died in prison. A further Serbs were sentenced to death. A predominantly Bosniak special militia known as the Schutzkorps was established and carried out the persecution of Serbs.

Austria-Hungary correctly believed that Serbian officials especially the officers of the Black Hand were involved in the plot to murder the Archduke, world war 1 article, and wanted to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia. Serbia accepted all of the terms of the ultimatum except for article six, which demanded that Austrian delegates be allowed in Serbia for the purpose of participation in the investigation into the assassination. Finally, on 28 Julya month after the assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

When he refused, Germany issued an ultimatum demanding its mobilisation be stopped, and a commitment not to support Serbia. Another was sent to France, asking her not to support Russia if it were to come to the defence of Serbia. World war 1 article 1 August, after the Russian response, Germany mobilised and declared war on Russia. This also led to the general mobilisation in Austria-Hungary on 4 August. The German government issued demands to France that it remain neutral as they had to decide which deployment plan to implement, it being extremely difficult to change the deployment whilst it was underway.

Germany responded by mobilising its own reserves and implementing World war 1 article II West. Moltke told the Kaiser that attempting to redeploy a million men was unthinkable, and that making it possible for the French to attack the Germans "in the rear" would prove disastrous.

Yet Wilhelm insisted that the German army should not march into Luxembourg until he received a telegram sent by his cousin George Vwho made it clear that there had been a misunderstanding. Eventually the Kaiser told Moltke, "Now you can do what you want. On 2 August, Germany occupied Luxembourgand on 3 August declared war on France; on the same day, they sent the Belgian government an ultimatum demanding unimpeded right of way through any part of Belgium, world war 1 article, which was refused.

Early on the morning of 4 August, the Germans invaded; King Albert ordered his military to resist and called for assistance under the Treaty of London. The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication.

Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Previously tested deployment plans world war 1 article been replaced early inbut those had never been tested in exercises. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts.

Over the next two weeks, Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victories of the war and dashed Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Austria had to keep sizeable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia. The plan was to quickly knock France out of the war, then redeploy to the East and do the same to Russia. Schlieffen deliberately kept the German left i.

As such, as the German Army increased in size in the years leading up to the war, he changed the allocation of forces world war 1 article the German right and left wings from to Ultimately, Moltke's changes meant insufficient forces to achieve decisive success and thus unrealistic goals and timings. The initial German advance in the West was very successful: by the end of August the Allied left, which included the British Expeditionary Force World war 1 articlewas in full retreat ; French casualties in the first month exceeded , including 27, killed on 22 August during the Battle of the Frontiers.

Inthe Russian Stavka had agreed with the French to attack Germany within 15 days of mobilisation; this was unrealistic and the two Russian armies that entered East Prussia on 17 August did so without many of their support elements.

By the end ofGerman troops held strong defensive positions inside France, controlled the bulk of France's domestic coalfields and had inflictedmore casualties than it lost itself. However, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of a decisive outcome while it had failed to achieve the primary objective of avoiding a long, two-front war. It will go on for a long time but lost it is already. Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, world war 1 article, French, and German colonial forces in Africa, world war 1 article.

On 10 August, German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the rest of the war. The German colonial forces in German East Africaled by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeckfought a guerrilla warfare campaign during World War I and only surrendered two weeks after the armistice took effect in Europe. Germany attempted to use Indian nationalism and pan-Islamism to its advantage, world war 1 article uprisings in Indiaand sending a mission that urged Afghanistan to join the war on the side of Central Powers.

However, contrary to British fears of a revolt in India, the outbreak of the war saw an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards Britain. Casualties of Indian soldiers totalled 47, killed and 65, wounded during World War I. Gandhi and others, world war 1 article.

Military tactics developed before World War I failed to keep pace with advances in technology and had become obsolete. These advances had allowed the creation of strong defensive systems, which out-of-date military tactics could not break through for most of the war.

Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances, while artilleryworld war 1 article, vastly more lethal than in the s, coupled with machine gunsmade crossing open ground extremely difficult. In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as gas warfare and the tank.

After the First Battle of the Marne 5—12 SeptemberAllied and German forces unsuccessfully tried to outflank each other, a series of world war 1 article later known as the " Race to the Sea ". By the end ofthe opposing forces were left confronting each other along an uninterrupted line of entrenched positions from Alsace to Belgium's North Sea coast. Both sides tried to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances.

Several types of gas soon became widely used by both sides, and though it never proved a decisive, battle-winning weapon, poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war. However, their effectiveness would grow as the war progressed; the Allies built tanks in large numbers, whilst the Germans employed only a few of their own design, supplemented by captured Allied tanks.

Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years. Throughout —17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, world war 1 article, because of both the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides.


World War I: Summary, Causes & Facts - HISTORY


world war 1 article


Jul 21,  · World War I, also called First World War or Great War, an international conflict that in –18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the United States, the Middle East, and other regions. Oct 29,  · World War I History. World War I began in , after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and lasted until During the conflict, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (the Central Powers) fought against Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Romania, Japan and the United States (the Allied Powers). Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One June 28 in Sarajevo. We'll start with the facts and work back: it may make it all the easier to understand how World War One actually happened.