Hindu texts - Wikipedia


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Mahabharata, one of the two Sanskrit epic poems of ancient India (the other being the Ramayana). The Mahabharata is an important source of information on the development of Hinduism between BCE and CE and is regarded by Hindus as both a text about dharma (Hindu moral law) and a history. Aug 22,  · Hinduism is a compilation of many traditions and philosophies and is considered by many scholars to be the world’s oldest religion, dating back more than 4, years. Today it is the third Author: damselrsa.gq Editors. “Hinduism” is a term used to designate a body of religious and philosophical beliefs indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest religious traditions, and it is founded upon what is often regarded as the oldest surviving text of humanity: the Vedas. It .

Hindu Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Minimally it stands for a tradition of Indian philosophical thinking. However, it could be interpreted as designating one comprehensive philosophical doctrine, shared by all Hindu thinkers. There is no single, comprehensive philosophical doctrine shared by all Hindus that distinguishes their view from contrary philosophical views associated with other Indian religious movements such as Buddhism or Jainism on issues of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics or cosmology.

In total, hinduism literature, Hindu philosophy has made a sizable contribution to the history of Indian philosophy and its role has been far from static: Hindu philosophy was influenced by Buddhist and Jain philosophies, and in turn Hindu philosophy influenced Buddhist philosophy in India in its later stages. In recent times, Hindu philosophy evolved into what some scholars call "Neo-Hinduism," which can be understood as an Indian response to the perceived sectarianism and scientism hinduism literature the West, hinduism literature.

Hindu philosophy thus has a long history, stretching back from the hinduism literature millennia B. It is a religion practiced the world over. Hacker; Halbfass, India and Europe. While Neo-Hinduism is no doubt a part of the Hindu philosophical tradition, hinduism literature constitutes a distinct development within the tradition. Hindu philosophy is difficult to narrow down to a definite doctrine because Hinduism itself, hinduism literature, as a religion, resists identification with any hinduism literature worked out doctrine.

Prior to the modern period of history, hinduism literature, authors that we think of as Hindus did not identify themselves by that title. Monier-Williams p. Its historical usage is thus an umbrella term that identifies many related religious and philosophical traditions that are not clearly part of another Indian tradition, such as Buddhism and Jainism. However, hinduism literature, many of hinduism literature ideas and practices commonly associated with Hinduism can be found in adjacent Indian religio-philosophical traditions, hinduism literature as Buddhism and Jainism.

Moreover, some of them are not common to all Hindu thinkers. If it were the case that a belief in karma is common to all Hindu philosophies, and only Hindu philosophies, then we would have a clear doctrinal hinduism literature for identifying Hinduism.

Moreover, it is hinduism literature evident that it is embraced by all sources that we consider Hindu. For instance, the doctrine of karma seems to be absent from much of the Vedas. Karma is not a sufficient criterion of Hinduism, and it likely is not a necessary condition either.

Polytheism, or the worship of many deities, is often identified as a hinduism literature feature of Hinduism. However, it is not true that all Hindus are polytheists. We hinduism literature identify Hinduism as the set of religious views that recognize the divinity or exalted status of a core set of Indic deities, but this too would not provide a way to separate Hinduism from Buddhism and Jainism. Belief in certain deities might constitute a necessary condition of Hinduism, but it is not a sufficient criterion.

This approach will not do, for not all views that we consider Hindu recognize the validity of all of these values. This attempt to define Hinduism in terms of a simple doctrine fails, for some of what passes for dharma ethics, hinduism literature, morality or duty in the context of particular schools of Hindu philosophical thought share much with non-Hindu, but Indian schools of thought.

Also, there is sufficient variation amongst the schools of Hindu philosophy on moral matters that makes defining Hindu philosophy solely on the basis of a shared moral doctrine impossible. If there is a core moral theory common to hinduism literature Hindu schools, it hinduism literature likely to be so thin that it will also be found as a component of other Indian religions. Thus, an ethical theory might be a necessary criterion of Hinduism, but hinduism literature is insufficient.

Finally, one might attempt to identify Hinduism with the institution of a caste system that carves society into a specified set of classes whose natures dispose them and obligate them to certain occupations in life. This approach to defining Hinduism is essentially a rehabilitation of the idea that some core moral doctrine cements Hinduism together. There are two problems with this approach that renders it unhelpful to identifying Hinduism.

Dhammapada ch. XXVI; cf. Yet, the term continues to be useful because it centers on a stance that separates Hindu thinkers from Buddhist, Jain, or Sikh thinkers. The stance in question is openness to the provisional validity of a core set of Hindu texts. At the center of the canon of Hindu texts is the Vedas, followed by a large body of literature of secondary religious importance, which largely derive their legitimacy from Vedic thought.

Non-systematic Hindu philosophy is comprised of the philosophical elements of the primary and secondary bodies of canonical Hindu texts, while the systematic Hindu philosophies, which also adopt the congenial disposition towards the Vedas, find their definitive expressions in formal philosophical texts authored by professional philosophers.

Finally, Neo-Hindu philosophy of late likewise adopts a positive disposition to the Vedas, and hence constitutes the latest offering in the history of Hindu philosophy.

The Vedas are a large corpus, originally committed to memory and transmitted orally from teacher to student. On the basis of linguistic variations in the corpus, contemporary scholars are of the opinion that the Vedas were composed at various points during approximately a year span that can be no later than B.

The Vedas are composed in hinduism literature Indo-European language that is loosely referred to as Sanskrit, but much of it is in an ancient precursor to Sanskrit, more properly called Vedic. However, the earlier portion of the Vedas is not entirely devoid of lofty or philosophical significance.

Many of the mantras resurface in the latter portion of the Vedas as dense expressions of metaphysical theses. This is the idea that the universe is a closed ethical system, supported by a system of reciprocal sacrifice and obligation. Four major commentarial schools evolved to interpret the import of the later portions of the Vedas. Over time, however, translations into vernacular languages became popular, and additional texts were authored in vernaculars.

The focal events of the two epics likely occurred between B. Thapar p. Manu X. Their dominant concern however is to prescribe the specific duties and privileges of each caste. The idea of ritual expiation can be understood as a procedure concerned with alleviating ritual impurity, hinduism literature.

Core Hindu canonical texts—the Vedas—form the textual backdrop against which many of the systematic Hindu philosophies are articulated. However, they do not exhaust the import of Hindu philosophy for two main reasons. First, the Vedas are not composed with the intention of being systematic treaties on philosophical issues. They leave many issues of philosophy relatively untouched. Secondly, the core Hindu canonical texts are not canonical in the same way for all Hindus.

By and large, those we tend to regard as Hindu accord some type of provisional authority to both the Vedas, and the secondary Vedic literature.

However, hinduism literature, the authority accorded is something that Hindu hinduism literature have disagreed upon. The question seems particularly pertinent in cases like Buddhist and Jain philosophy, which have all had rich philosophical histories. As a rule, systematic Indian philosophy Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism was recorded in Sanskrit, the pan-Indian language of scholarship, after the end of the Vedic period.

While scholars are confident about the approximate dates that the texts of systematic Indian philosophy handed down to us were written cf. Moreover, hinduism literature, most of the schools of Hindu philosophy have existed side by side.

Thus, the order of explication of the systematic schools of Hindu philosophy follows the conventional order of explication and not any particular historical order.

The founder of this school is the sage Gautama 2nd cent, hinduism literature. Perception arises when the senses make contact with the object of perception, hinduism literature. This applies as much to mundane objects, as it does to the self, and God. The opening verse states that the topic of the text is the elaboration of dharma ethics or morality.

It is attributed to the legendary sage Kapila of antiquity, though we have no extant work left to us by him. It is eternally hinduism literature from Nature, but it enters into complex configurations of Nature biological bodies in order to experience and to have knowledge. It lacks the ability to be an agent. Prima faciehinduism literature, the bronze quality appears to correspond to tamassilver to rajasand sattva to gold.

While Indian philosophers had an important impact on the course of ancient Greek philosophy through Pyrrho of Elis, who traveled to India in the 3rd cent. This suggests that both Plato 4th cent. A relatively important point of cosmological difference is that the Yoga system does not consider the Mind or the Intellect Mahat to be the greatest creation of Nature.

In order to facilitate the calming of the mind, the Yoga system prescribes several moral and practical means. The eight limbs include:. When [one] becomes steadfast in… abstention from falsehood, [one] gets the power of obtaining for [oneself] and others the fruits of good deeds, without [others] having to perform the deeds themselves.

When [one] becomes steadfast in… abstention from theft, hinduism literature wealth comes. In this penultimate state, the aspirant has all their past sins washed away by a cloud of dharma virtue, or morality. Critics of hinduism literature Yoga system charge that it cannot be accepted on moral grounds for hinduism literature has as its ultimate goal hinduism literature state of isolation.

On this view, hinduism literature, kaivalya is understood literally as a state of social isolation see Bharadwaja. Given the uncommon journey that the yogi takes, it is also natural to conclude hinduism literature the state of kaivalya is the state characterized by having no hinduism literature, owing to the radical shift hinduism literature perspective that the yogi attains hinduism literature yoga.

Foundationalism is the view that certain knowledge claims are independently valid which means that no further justificatory reasons are either possible or necessary to justify these claimsand moreover, that these independently valid knowledge claims are able to serve as justifications for beliefs that are based upon them.

Such independently valid knowledge claims are thought to be justificatory foundations of a system of beliefs. If the word ceased to exist as soon as uttered then no one could speak of any thing to others…. From this it follows that the word denotes hinduism literature Class, hinduism literature. If they do not have their meaning eternally and independent of subjective associations between referents and words, communication would be impossible.

The latter portion of the Vedas is a vast corpus that does not elaborate a single doctrine in the hinduism literature of a monograph. Rather, it is a collection of speculative texts of the Vedas with overlapping themes and images. These are the 8th century C. These three are not the only commentaries.

They principally differ on the metaphysics of individual selves and Brahmanthough there are also some striking ethical differences hinduism literature these schools as well. However, in and of itself, it has no power to make its will manifest. Brahmanon all three accounts, steps in and grants the fruits of the desires of an individual. Thus while on this account individuals are agents, they are really also quite impotent.

Madhva in contrast is reputed to have been a staunch opponent of animal sacrifices, who held that such rituals are a result of a corruption of the Vedic tradition, hinduism literature. The hinduism literature explication will be restricted to such works. From this argument from superimposition, the ordinary human psyche which self identifies with a body, a unique personal history, and distinguishes itself from a plurality of other persons and objects comes about by an erroneous superimposition of the characteristics of subjectivity consciousness, or the sense of being a witnesshinduism literature, with the category of objects which includes the characteristics of having a body, existing at a certain time and place and being numerically distinct from other objects.

And hence, the conflation of the two categories is fallacious, hinduism literature.


Hinduism - Origins, Facts & Beliefs - HISTORY


hinduism literature


“Hinduism” is a term used to designate a body of religious and philosophical beliefs indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest religious traditions, and it is founded upon what is often regarded as the oldest surviving text of humanity: the Vedas. It . The Smriti literature of Hinduism, particularly the Sutras, as well as other Hindu texts such as the Arthashastra and Sushruta Samhita were also written or expanded during this period. Many influential Yoga Upanishads, states Gavin Flood, were composed before the 3rd century CE. HINDUISM is a term that was coined by foreign invaders of India to designate the traditional socio‐religious systems of the people of ‘Hind’ or India. This term does not appear in any of the sacred literature of India. Hindus refer to their religion as Sanatana Dharma which loosely.